Arthritis literally means “inflammation of a joint.” In some forms of arthritis, such as osteoarthritis, the inflammation arises because the smooth covering (articular cartilage) on the ends of bones become damaged or worn. Osteoarthritis is usually found in one, usually weightbearing, joint.
A cyst is a closed sac having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. It may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. Once formed, a cyst could go away on its own or may have to be removed through surgery. A tumor is the name for a swelling or lesion formed by an abnormal growth of cells. Tumor is not synonymous with cancer. A tumor can be benign, pre-malignant or malignant, whereas cancer is by definition malignant.
Degeneration of the intervertebral disc, often called “degenerative disc disease” (DDD) of the vertebral column, is a condition that can be painful and can greatly affect the quality of one’s life. While disc degeneration is a normal part of aging and for most people is not a problem, for certain individuals a degenerated disc can cause severe constant chronic pain.
A bone may be completely fractured or partially fractured in any number of ways (cross-wise, lengthwise, in the middle). Fractures can happen in a variety of ways. Trauma accounts for most fractures. For example, a fall, a motor vehicle accident or a tackle during a football game can all result in a fracture. Osteoporosis also can contribute to fractures. Osteoporosis is a bone disease that results in the “thinning” of the bone. The bones become fragile and easily broken. Overuse sometimes results in stress fractures. These are common among athletes.
A spinal disc herniation, informally and misleadingly called a “slipped disc”, is a medical condition affecting the spine, in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion to bulge out. Tears are almost always posterior-ipsilateral in nature due to the presence of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the spinal canal. This tear in the disc ring may result in the release of inflammatory chemical mediators which may directly cause severe pain, even in the absence of nerve root compression. This is the rationale for the use of anti-inflammatory treatments for pain associated with disc herniation, protrusion, bulge or disc tear.
Kyphosis, also called hunchback, is a common condition of a curvature of the upper (thoracic) spine. It can be the result of degenerative diseases (such as arthritis), developmental problems, osteoporosis with compression fractures of the vertebrae, and/or trauma.
Osteoporosis is a disease of bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone is altered. The term “established osteoporosis” includes the presence of a fragility fracture. Given its influence in the risk of fragility fracture, osteoporosis may significantly affect life expectancy and quality of life.
Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person’s spine is curved from side to side, shaped like an “S” or “C” and may also be rotated. For adults, it can be very painful. It is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine. On an x-ray, viewed from the rear, the spine of an individual with a typical scoliosis may look more like an “S” or a “C” than a straight line. It is typically classified as congenital (caused by vertebral anomalies present at birth), idiopathic (sub-classified as infantile, juvenile, adolescent, or adult according to when onset occurred) or as neuromuscular, having developed as a secondary symptom of another condition, such as spina bifida, cerebral palsy, spinal muscular atrophy or due to physical trauma.
Spinal stenosis is a medical condition in which the spinal canal narrows and compresses the spinal cord and nerves. This is usually due to the common occurrence of spinal degeneration that occurs with aging. It can also sometimes be caused by spinal disc herniation, osteoporosis or a tumor. In the cervical (neck) and lumbar (low back) region it can be a congenital condition to varying degrees.
Injury or bodily injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical, and either by accident or intentional. Personal Injury also refers to damage caused to the reputation of another rather than physical harm to the body.